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   1HOWTO do Linux kernel development
   2=================================
   3
   4This is the be-all, end-all document on this topic.  It contains
   5instructions on how to become a Linux kernel developer and how to learn
   6to work with the Linux kernel development community.  It tries to not
   7contain anything related to the technical aspects of kernel programming,
   8but will help point you in the right direction for that.
   9
  10If anything in this document becomes out of date, please send in patches
  11to the maintainer of this file, who is listed at the bottom of the
  12document.
  13
  14
  15Introduction
  16------------
  17
  18So, you want to learn how to become a Linux kernel developer?  Or you
  19have been told by your manager, "Go write a Linux driver for this
  20device."  This document's goal is to teach you everything you need to
  21know to achieve this by describing the process you need to go through,
  22and hints on how to work with the community.  It will also try to
  23explain some of the reasons why the community works like it does.
  24
  25The kernel is written mostly in C, with some architecture-dependent
  26parts written in assembly. A good understanding of C is required for
  27kernel development.  Assembly (any architecture) is not required unless
  28you plan to do low-level development for that architecture.  Though they
  29are not a good substitute for a solid C education and/or years of
  30experience, the following books are good for, if anything, reference:
  31
  32 - "The C Programming Language" by Kernighan and Ritchie [Prentice Hall]
  33 - "Practical C Programming" by Steve Oualline [O'Reilly]
  34 - "C:  A Reference Manual" by Harbison and Steele [Prentice Hall]
  35
  36The kernel is written using GNU C and the GNU toolchain.  While it
  37adheres to the ISO C89 standard, it uses a number of extensions that are
  38not featured in the standard.  The kernel is a freestanding C
  39environment, with no reliance on the standard C library, so some
  40portions of the C standard are not supported.  Arbitrary long long
  41divisions and floating point are not allowed.  It can sometimes be
  42difficult to understand the assumptions the kernel has on the toolchain
  43and the extensions that it uses, and unfortunately there is no
  44definitive reference for them.  Please check the gcc info pages (`info
  45gcc`) for some information on them.
  46
  47Please remember that you are trying to learn how to work with the
  48existing development community.  It is a diverse group of people, with
  49high standards for coding, style and procedure.  These standards have
  50been created over time based on what they have found to work best for
  51such a large and geographically dispersed team.  Try to learn as much as
  52possible about these standards ahead of time, as they are well
  53documented; do not expect people to adapt to you or your company's way
  54of doing things.
  55
  56
  57Legal Issues
  58------------
  59
  60The Linux kernel source code is released under the GPL.  Please see the
  61file, COPYING, in the main directory of the source tree, for details on
  62the license.  If you have further questions about the license, please
  63contact a lawyer, and do not ask on the Linux kernel mailing list.  The
  64people on the mailing lists are not lawyers, and you should not rely on
  65their statements on legal matters.
  66
  67For common questions and answers about the GPL, please see:
  68
  69        https://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-faq.html
  70
  71
  72Documentation
  73-------------
  74
  75The Linux kernel source tree has a large range of documents that are
  76invaluable for learning how to interact with the kernel community.  When
  77new features are added to the kernel, it is recommended that new
  78documentation files are also added which explain how to use the feature.
  79When a kernel change causes the interface that the kernel exposes to
  80userspace to change, it is recommended that you send the information or
  81a patch to the manual pages explaining the change to the manual pages
  82maintainer at mtk.manpages@gmail.com, and CC the list
  83linux-api@vger.kernel.org.
  84
  85Here is a list of files that are in the kernel source tree that are
  86required reading:
  87
  88  README
  89    This file gives a short background on the Linux kernel and describes
  90    what is necessary to do to configure and build the kernel.  People
  91    who are new to the kernel should start here.
  92
  93  :ref:`Documentation/Changes <changes>`
  94    This file gives a list of the minimum levels of various software
  95    packages that are necessary to build and run the kernel
  96    successfully.
  97
  98  :ref:`Documentation/CodingStyle <codingstyle>`
  99    This describes the Linux kernel coding style, and some of the
 100    rationale behind it. All new code is expected to follow the
 101    guidelines in this document. Most maintainers will only accept
 102    patches if these rules are followed, and many people will only
 103    review code if it is in the proper style.
 104
 105  :ref:`Documentation/SubmittingPatches <submittingpatches>` and :ref:`Documentation/SubmittingDrivers <submittingdrivers>`
 106    These files describe in explicit detail how to successfully create
 107    and send a patch, including (but not limited to):
 108
 109       - Email contents
 110       - Email format
 111       - Who to send it to
 112
 113    Following these rules will not guarantee success (as all patches are
 114    subject to scrutiny for content and style), but not following them
 115    will almost always prevent it.
 116
 117    Other excellent descriptions of how to create patches properly are:
 118
 119        "The Perfect Patch"
 120                https://www.ozlabs.org/~akpm/stuff/tpp.txt
 121
 122        "Linux kernel patch submission format"
 123                http://linux.yyz.us/patch-format.html
 124
 125  :ref:`Documentation/stable_api_nonsense.txt <stable_api_nonsense>`
 126    This file describes the rationale behind the conscious decision to
 127    not have a stable API within the kernel, including things like:
 128
 129      - Subsystem shim-layers (for compatibility?)
 130      - Driver portability between Operating Systems.
 131      - Mitigating rapid change within the kernel source tree (or
 132        preventing rapid change)
 133
 134    This document is crucial for understanding the Linux development
 135    philosophy and is very important for people moving to Linux from
 136    development on other Operating Systems.
 137
 138  :ref:`Documentation/SecurityBugs <securitybugs>`
 139    If you feel you have found a security problem in the Linux kernel,
 140    please follow the steps in this document to help notify the kernel
 141    developers, and help solve the issue.
 142
 143  :ref:`Documentation/ManagementStyle <managementstyle>`
 144    This document describes how Linux kernel maintainers operate and the
 145    shared ethos behind their methodologies.  This is important reading
 146    for anyone new to kernel development (or anyone simply curious about
 147    it), as it resolves a lot of common misconceptions and confusion
 148    about the unique behavior of kernel maintainers.
 149
 150  :ref:`Documentation/stable_kernel_rules.txt <stable_kernel_rules>`
 151    This file describes the rules on how the stable kernel releases
 152    happen, and what to do if you want to get a change into one of these
 153    releases.
 154
 155  :ref:`Documentation/kernel-docs.txt <kernel_docs>`
 156    A list of external documentation that pertains to kernel
 157    development.  Please consult this list if you do not find what you
 158    are looking for within the in-kernel documentation.
 159
 160  :ref:`Documentation/applying-patches.txt <applying_patches>`
 161    A good introduction describing exactly what a patch is and how to
 162    apply it to the different development branches of the kernel.
 163
 164The kernel also has a large number of documents that can be
 165automatically generated from the source code itself or from
 166ReStructuredText markups (ReST), like this one. This includes a
 167full description of the in-kernel API, and rules on how to handle
 168locking properly.
 169
 170All such documents can be generated as PDF or HTML by running::
 171
 172        make pdfdocs
 173        make htmldocs
 174
 175respectively from the main kernel source directory.
 176
 177The documents that uses ReST markup will be generated at Documentation/output.
 178They can also be generated on LaTeX and ePub formats with::
 179
 180        make latexdocs
 181        make epubdocs
 182
 183Currently, there are some documents written on DocBook that are in
 184the process of conversion to ReST. Such documents will be created in the
 185Documentation/DocBook/ directory and can be generated also as
 186Postscript or man pages by running::
 187
 188        make psdocs
 189        make mandocs
 190
 191Becoming A Kernel Developer
 192---------------------------
 193
 194If you do not know anything about Linux kernel development, you should
 195look at the Linux KernelNewbies project:
 196
 197        https://kernelnewbies.org
 198
 199It consists of a helpful mailing list where you can ask almost any type
 200of basic kernel development question (make sure to search the archives
 201first, before asking something that has already been answered in the
 202past.)  It also has an IRC channel that you can use to ask questions in
 203real-time, and a lot of helpful documentation that is useful for
 204learning about Linux kernel development.
 205
 206The website has basic information about code organization, subsystems,
 207and current projects (both in-tree and out-of-tree). It also describes
 208some basic logistical information, like how to compile a kernel and
 209apply a patch.
 210
 211If you do not know where you want to start, but you want to look for
 212some task to start doing to join into the kernel development community,
 213go to the Linux Kernel Janitor's project:
 214
 215        https://kernelnewbies.org/KernelJanitors
 216
 217It is a great place to start.  It describes a list of relatively simple
 218problems that need to be cleaned up and fixed within the Linux kernel
 219source tree.  Working with the developers in charge of this project, you
 220will learn the basics of getting your patch into the Linux kernel tree,
 221and possibly be pointed in the direction of what to go work on next, if
 222you do not already have an idea.
 223
 224If you already have a chunk of code that you want to put into the kernel
 225tree, but need some help getting it in the proper form, the
 226kernel-mentors project was created to help you out with this.  It is a
 227mailing list, and can be found at:
 228
 229        https://selenic.com/mailman/listinfo/kernel-mentors
 230
 231Before making any actual modifications to the Linux kernel code, it is
 232imperative to understand how the code in question works.  For this
 233purpose, nothing is better than reading through it directly (most tricky
 234bits are commented well), perhaps even with the help of specialized
 235tools.  One such tool that is particularly recommended is the Linux
 236Cross-Reference project, which is able to present source code in a
 237self-referential, indexed webpage format. An excellent up-to-date
 238repository of the kernel code may be found at:
 239
 240        http://lxr.free-electrons.com/
 241
 242
 243The development process
 244-----------------------
 245
 246Linux kernel development process currently consists of a few different
 247main kernel "branches" and lots of different subsystem-specific kernel
 248branches.  These different branches are:
 249
 250  - main 4.x kernel tree
 251  - 4.x.y -stable kernel tree
 252  - 4.x -git kernel patches
 253  - subsystem specific kernel trees and patches
 254  - the 4.x -next kernel tree for integration tests
 255
 2564.x kernel tree
 257-----------------
 2584.x kernels are maintained by Linus Torvalds, and can be found on
 259https://kernel.org in the pub/linux/kernel/v4.x/ directory.  Its development
 260process is as follows:
 261
 262  - As soon as a new kernel is released a two weeks window is open,
 263    during this period of time maintainers can submit big diffs to
 264    Linus, usually the patches that have already been included in the
 265    -next kernel for a few weeks.  The preferred way to submit big changes
 266    is using git (the kernel's source management tool, more information
 267    can be found at https://git-scm.com/) but plain patches are also just
 268    fine.
 269  - After two weeks a -rc1 kernel is released it is now possible to push
 270    only patches that do not include new features that could affect the
 271    stability of the whole kernel.  Please note that a whole new driver
 272    (or filesystem) might be accepted after -rc1 because there is no
 273    risk of causing regressions with such a change as long as the change
 274    is self-contained and does not affect areas outside of the code that
 275    is being added.  git can be used to send patches to Linus after -rc1
 276    is released, but the patches need to also be sent to a public
 277    mailing list for review.
 278  - A new -rc is released whenever Linus deems the current git tree to
 279    be in a reasonably sane state adequate for testing.  The goal is to
 280    release a new -rc kernel every week.
 281  - Process continues until the kernel is considered "ready", the
 282    process should last around 6 weeks.
 283
 284It is worth mentioning what Andrew Morton wrote on the linux-kernel
 285mailing list about kernel releases:
 286
 287        *"Nobody knows when a kernel will be released, because it's
 288        released according to perceived bug status, not according to a
 289        preconceived timeline."*
 290
 2914.x.y -stable kernel tree
 292-------------------------
 293Kernels with 3-part versions are -stable kernels. They contain
 294relatively small and critical fixes for security problems or significant
 295regressions discovered in a given 4.x kernel.
 296
 297This is the recommended branch for users who want the most recent stable
 298kernel and are not interested in helping test development/experimental
 299versions.
 300
 301If no 4.x.y kernel is available, then the highest numbered 4.x
 302kernel is the current stable kernel.
 303
 3044.x.y are maintained by the "stable" team <stable@vger.kernel.org>, and
 305are released as needs dictate.  The normal release period is approximately
 306two weeks, but it can be longer if there are no pressing problems.  A
 307security-related problem, instead, can cause a release to happen almost
 308instantly.
 309
 310The file Documentation/stable_kernel_rules.txt in the kernel tree
 311documents what kinds of changes are acceptable for the -stable tree, and
 312how the release process works.
 313
 3144.x -git patches
 315----------------
 316These are daily snapshots of Linus' kernel tree which are managed in a
 317git repository (hence the name.) These patches are usually released
 318daily and represent the current state of Linus' tree.  They are more
 319experimental than -rc kernels since they are generated automatically
 320without even a cursory glance to see if they are sane.
 321
 322Subsystem Specific kernel trees and patches
 323-------------------------------------------
 324The maintainers of the various kernel subsystems --- and also many
 325kernel subsystem developers --- expose their current state of
 326development in source repositories.  That way, others can see what is
 327happening in the different areas of the kernel.  In areas where
 328development is rapid, a developer may be asked to base his submissions
 329onto such a subsystem kernel tree so that conflicts between the
 330submission and other already ongoing work are avoided.
 331
 332Most of these repositories are git trees, but there are also other SCMs
 333in use, or patch queues being published as quilt series.  Addresses of
 334these subsystem repositories are listed in the MAINTAINERS file.  Many
 335of them can be browsed at https://git.kernel.org/.
 336
 337Before a proposed patch is committed to such a subsystem tree, it is
 338subject to review which primarily happens on mailing lists (see the
 339respective section below).  For several kernel subsystems, this review
 340process is tracked with the tool patchwork.  Patchwork offers a web
 341interface which shows patch postings, any comments on a patch or
 342revisions to it, and maintainers can mark patches as under review,
 343accepted, or rejected.  Most of these patchwork sites are listed at
 344https://patchwork.kernel.org/.
 345
 3464.x -next kernel tree for integration tests
 347-------------------------------------------
 348Before updates from subsystem trees are merged into the mainline 4.x
 349tree, they need to be integration-tested.  For this purpose, a special
 350testing repository exists into which virtually all subsystem trees are
 351pulled on an almost daily basis:
 352
 353        https://git.kernel.org/?p=linux/kernel/git/next/linux-next.git
 354
 355This way, the -next kernel gives a summary outlook onto what will be
 356expected to go into the mainline kernel at the next merge period.
 357Adventurous testers are very welcome to runtime-test the -next kernel.
 358
 359
 360Bug Reporting
 361-------------
 362
 363https://bugzilla.kernel.org is where the Linux kernel developers track kernel
 364bugs.  Users are encouraged to report all bugs that they find in this
 365tool.  For details on how to use the kernel bugzilla, please see:
 366
 367        https://bugzilla.kernel.org/page.cgi?id=faq.html
 368
 369The file REPORTING-BUGS in the main kernel source directory has a good
 370template for how to report a possible kernel bug, and details what kind
 371of information is needed by the kernel developers to help track down the
 372problem.
 373
 374
 375Managing bug reports
 376--------------------
 377
 378One of the best ways to put into practice your hacking skills is by fixing
 379bugs reported by other people. Not only you will help to make the kernel
 380more stable, you'll learn to fix real world problems and you will improve
 381your skills, and other developers will be aware of your presence. Fixing
 382bugs is one of the best ways to get merits among other developers, because
 383not many people like wasting time fixing other people's bugs.
 384
 385To work in the already reported bug reports, go to https://bugzilla.kernel.org.
 386If you want to be advised of the future bug reports, you can subscribe to the
 387bugme-new mailing list (only new bug reports are mailed here) or to the
 388bugme-janitor mailing list (every change in the bugzilla is mailed here)
 389
 390        https://lists.linux-foundation.org/mailman/listinfo/bugme-new
 391
 392        https://lists.linux-foundation.org/mailman/listinfo/bugme-janitors
 393
 394
 395
 396Mailing lists
 397-------------
 398
 399As some of the above documents describe, the majority of the core kernel
 400developers participate on the Linux Kernel Mailing list.  Details on how
 401to subscribe and unsubscribe from the list can be found at:
 402
 403        http://vger.kernel.org/vger-lists.html#linux-kernel
 404
 405There are archives of the mailing list on the web in many different
 406places.  Use a search engine to find these archives.  For example:
 407
 408        http://dir.gmane.org/gmane.linux.kernel
 409
 410It is highly recommended that you search the archives about the topic
 411you want to bring up, before you post it to the list. A lot of things
 412already discussed in detail are only recorded at the mailing list
 413archives.
 414
 415Most of the individual kernel subsystems also have their own separate
 416mailing list where they do their development efforts.  See the
 417MAINTAINERS file for a list of what these lists are for the different
 418groups.
 419
 420Many of the lists are hosted on kernel.org. Information on them can be
 421found at:
 422
 423        http://vger.kernel.org/vger-lists.html
 424
 425Please remember to follow good behavioral habits when using the lists.
 426Though a bit cheesy, the following URL has some simple guidelines for
 427interacting with the list (or any list):
 428
 429        http://www.albion.com/netiquette/
 430
 431If multiple people respond to your mail, the CC: list of recipients may
 432get pretty large. Don't remove anybody from the CC: list without a good
 433reason, or don't reply only to the list address. Get used to receiving the
 434mail twice, one from the sender and the one from the list, and don't try
 435to tune that by adding fancy mail-headers, people will not like it.
 436
 437Remember to keep the context and the attribution of your replies intact,
 438keep the "John Kernelhacker wrote ...:" lines at the top of your reply, and
 439add your statements between the individual quoted sections instead of
 440writing at the top of the mail.
 441
 442If you add patches to your mail, make sure they are plain readable text
 443as stated in Documentation/SubmittingPatches.
 444Kernel developers don't want to deal with
 445attachments or compressed patches; they may want to comment on
 446individual lines of your patch, which works only that way. Make sure you
 447use a mail program that does not mangle spaces and tab characters. A
 448good first test is to send the mail to yourself and try to apply your
 449own patch by yourself. If that doesn't work, get your mail program fixed
 450or change it until it works.
 451
 452Above all, please remember to show respect to other subscribers.
 453
 454
 455Working with the community
 456--------------------------
 457
 458The goal of the kernel community is to provide the best possible kernel
 459there is.  When you submit a patch for acceptance, it will be reviewed
 460on its technical merits and those alone.  So, what should you be
 461expecting?
 462
 463  - criticism
 464  - comments
 465  - requests for change
 466  - requests for justification
 467  - silence
 468
 469Remember, this is part of getting your patch into the kernel.  You have
 470to be able to take criticism and comments about your patches, evaluate
 471them at a technical level and either rework your patches or provide
 472clear and concise reasoning as to why those changes should not be made.
 473If there are no responses to your posting, wait a few days and try
 474again, sometimes things get lost in the huge volume.
 475
 476What should you not do?
 477
 478  - expect your patch to be accepted without question
 479  - become defensive
 480  - ignore comments
 481  - resubmit the patch without making any of the requested changes
 482
 483In a community that is looking for the best technical solution possible,
 484there will always be differing opinions on how beneficial a patch is.
 485You have to be cooperative, and willing to adapt your idea to fit within
 486the kernel.  Or at least be willing to prove your idea is worth it.
 487Remember, being wrong is acceptable as long as you are willing to work
 488toward a solution that is right.
 489
 490It is normal that the answers to your first patch might simply be a list
 491of a dozen things you should correct.  This does **not** imply that your
 492patch will not be accepted, and it is **not** meant against you
 493personally.  Simply correct all issues raised against your patch and
 494resend it.
 495
 496
 497Differences between the kernel community and corporate structures
 498-----------------------------------------------------------------
 499
 500The kernel community works differently than most traditional corporate
 501development environments.  Here are a list of things that you can try to
 502do to avoid problems:
 503
 504  Good things to say regarding your proposed changes:
 505
 506    - "This solves multiple problems."
 507    - "This deletes 2000 lines of code."
 508    - "Here is a patch that explains what I am trying to describe."
 509    - "I tested it on 5 different architectures..."
 510    - "Here is a series of small patches that..."
 511    - "This increases performance on typical machines..."
 512
 513  Bad things you should avoid saying:
 514
 515    - "We did it this way in AIX/ptx/Solaris, so therefore it must be
 516      good..."
 517    - "I've being doing this for 20 years, so..."
 518    - "This is required for my company to make money"
 519    - "This is for our Enterprise product line."
 520    - "Here is my 1000 page design document that describes my idea"
 521    - "I've been working on this for 6 months..."
 522    - "Here's a 5000 line patch that..."
 523    - "I rewrote all of the current mess, and here it is..."
 524    - "I have a deadline, and this patch needs to be applied now."
 525
 526Another way the kernel community is different than most traditional
 527software engineering work environments is the faceless nature of
 528interaction.  One benefit of using email and irc as the primary forms of
 529communication is the lack of discrimination based on gender or race.
 530The Linux kernel work environment is accepting of women and minorities
 531because all you are is an email address.  The international aspect also
 532helps to level the playing field because you can't guess gender based on
 533a person's name. A man may be named Andrea and a woman may be named Pat.
 534Most women who have worked in the Linux kernel and have expressed an
 535opinion have had positive experiences.
 536
 537The language barrier can cause problems for some people who are not
 538comfortable with English.  A good grasp of the language can be needed in
 539order to get ideas across properly on mailing lists, so it is
 540recommended that you check your emails to make sure they make sense in
 541English before sending them.
 542
 543
 544Break up your changes
 545---------------------
 546
 547The Linux kernel community does not gladly accept large chunks of code
 548dropped on it all at once.  The changes need to be properly introduced,
 549discussed, and broken up into tiny, individual portions.  This is almost
 550the exact opposite of what companies are used to doing.  Your proposal
 551should also be introduced very early in the development process, so that
 552you can receive feedback on what you are doing.  It also lets the
 553community feel that you are working with them, and not simply using them
 554as a dumping ground for your feature.  However, don't send 50 emails at
 555one time to a mailing list, your patch series should be smaller than
 556that almost all of the time.
 557
 558The reasons for breaking things up are the following:
 559
 5601) Small patches increase the likelihood that your patches will be
 561   applied, since they don't take much time or effort to verify for
 562   correctness.  A 5 line patch can be applied by a maintainer with
 563   barely a second glance. However, a 500 line patch may take hours to
 564   review for correctness (the time it takes is exponentially
 565   proportional to the size of the patch, or something).
 566
 567   Small patches also make it very easy to debug when something goes
 568   wrong.  It's much easier to back out patches one by one than it is
 569   to dissect a very large patch after it's been applied (and broken
 570   something).
 571
 5722) It's important not only to send small patches, but also to rewrite
 573   and simplify (or simply re-order) patches before submitting them.
 574
 575Here is an analogy from kernel developer Al Viro:
 576
 577        *"Think of a teacher grading homework from a math student.  The
 578        teacher does not want to see the student's trials and errors
 579        before they came up with the solution. They want to see the
 580        cleanest, most elegant answer.  A good student knows this, and
 581        would never submit her intermediate work before the final
 582        solution.*
 583
 584        *The same is true of kernel development. The maintainers and
 585        reviewers do not want to see the thought process behind the
 586        solution to the problem one is solving. They want to see a
 587        simple and elegant solution."*
 588
 589It may be challenging to keep the balance between presenting an elegant
 590solution and working together with the community and discussing your
 591unfinished work. Therefore it is good to get early in the process to
 592get feedback to improve your work, but also keep your changes in small
 593chunks that they may get already accepted, even when your whole task is
 594not ready for inclusion now.
 595
 596Also realize that it is not acceptable to send patches for inclusion
 597that are unfinished and will be "fixed up later."
 598
 599
 600Justify your change
 601-------------------
 602
 603Along with breaking up your patches, it is very important for you to let
 604the Linux community know why they should add this change.  New features
 605must be justified as being needed and useful.
 606
 607
 608Document your change
 609--------------------
 610
 611When sending in your patches, pay special attention to what you say in
 612the text in your email.  This information will become the ChangeLog
 613information for the patch, and will be preserved for everyone to see for
 614all time.  It should describe the patch completely, containing:
 615
 616  - why the change is necessary
 617  - the overall design approach in the patch
 618  - implementation details
 619  - testing results
 620
 621For more details on what this should all look like, please see the
 622ChangeLog section of the document:
 623
 624  "The Perfect Patch"
 625      http://www.ozlabs.org/~akpm/stuff/tpp.txt
 626
 627
 628All of these things are sometimes very hard to do. It can take years to
 629perfect these practices (if at all). It's a continuous process of
 630improvement that requires a lot of patience and determination. But
 631don't give up, it's possible. Many have done it before, and each had to
 632start exactly where you are now.
 633
 634
 635
 636
 637----------
 638
 639Thanks to Paolo Ciarrocchi who allowed the "Development Process"
 640(https://lwn.net/Articles/94386/) section
 641to be based on text he had written, and to Randy Dunlap and Gerrit
 642Huizenga for some of the list of things you should and should not say.
 643Also thanks to Pat Mochel, Hanna Linder, Randy Dunlap, Kay Sievers,
 644Vojtech Pavlik, Jan Kara, Josh Boyer, Kees Cook, Andrew Morton, Andi
 645Kleen, Vadim Lobanov, Jesper Juhl, Adrian Bunk, Keri Harris, Frans Pop,
 646David A. Wheeler, Junio Hamano, Michael Kerrisk, and Alex Shepard for
 647their review, comments, and contributions.  Without their help, this
 648document would not have been possible.
 649
 650
 651
 652Maintainer: Greg Kroah-Hartman <greg@kroah.com>
 653