1                     Dynamic DMA mapping Guide
   2                     =========================
   4                 David S. Miller <>
   5                 Richard Henderson <>
   6                  Jakub Jelinek <>
   8This is a guide to device driver writers on how to use the DMA API
   9with example pseudo-code.  For a concise description of the API, see
  12                       CPU and DMA addresses
  14There are several kinds of addresses involved in the DMA API, and it's
  15important to understand the differences.
  17The kernel normally uses virtual addresses.  Any address returned by
  18kmalloc(), vmalloc(), and similar interfaces is a virtual address and can
  19be stored in a "void *".
  21The virtual memory system (TLB, page tables, etc.) translates virtual
  22addresses to CPU physical addresses, which are stored as "phys_addr_t" or
  23"resource_size_t".  The kernel manages device resources like registers as
  24physical addresses.  These are the addresses in /proc/iomem.  The physical
  25address is not directly useful to a driver; it must use ioremap() to map
  26the space and produce a virtual address.
  28I/O devices use a third kind of address: a "bus address".  If a device has
  29registers at an MMIO address, or if it performs DMA to read or write system
  30memory, the addresses used by the device are bus addresses.  In some
  31systems, bus addresses are identical to CPU physical addresses, but in
  32general they are not.  IOMMUs and host bridges can produce arbitrary
  33mappings between physical and bus addresses.
  35From a device's point of view, DMA uses the bus address space, but it may
  36be restricted to a subset of that space.  For example, even if a system
  37supports 64-bit addresses for main memory and PCI BARs, it may use an IOMMU
  38so devices only need to use 32-bit DMA addresses.
  40Here's a picture and some examples:
  42               CPU                  CPU                  Bus
  43             Virtual              Physical             Address
  44             Address              Address               Space
  45              Space                Space
  47            +-------+             +------+             +------+
  48            |       |             |MMIO  |   Offset    |      |
  49            |       |  Virtual    |Space |   applied   |      |
  50          C +-------+ --------> B +------+ ----------> +------+ A
  51            |       |  mapping    |      |   by host   |      |
  52  +-----+   |       |             |      |   bridge    |      |   +--------+
  53  |     |   |       |             +------+             |      |   |        |
  54  | CPU |   |       |             | RAM  |             |      |   | Device |
  55  |     |   |       |             |      |             |      |   |        |
  56  +-----+   +-------+             +------+             +------+   +--------+
  57            |       |  Virtual    |Buffer|   Mapping   |      |
  58          X +-------+ --------> Y +------+ <---------- +------+ Z
  59            |       |  mapping    | RAM  |   by IOMMU
  60            |       |             |      |
  61            |       |             |      |
  62            +-------+             +------+
  64During the enumeration process, the kernel learns about I/O devices and
  65their MMIO space and the host bridges that connect them to the system.  For
  66example, if a PCI device has a BAR, the kernel reads the bus address (A)
  67from the BAR and converts it to a CPU physical address (B).  The address B
  68is stored in a struct resource and usually exposed via /proc/iomem.  When a
  69driver claims a device, it typically uses ioremap() to map physical address
  70B at a virtual address (C).  It can then use, e.g., ioread32(C), to access
  71the device registers at bus address A.
  73If the device supports DMA, the driver sets up a buffer using kmalloc() or
  74a similar interface, which returns a virtual address (X).  The virtual
  75memory system maps X to a physical address (Y) in system RAM.  The driver
  76can use virtual address X to access the buffer, but the device itself
  77cannot because DMA doesn't go through the CPU virtual memory system.
  79In some simple systems, the device can do DMA directly to physical address
  80Y.  But in many others, there is IOMMU hardware that translates DMA
  81addresses to physical addresses, e.g., it translates Z to Y.  This is part
  82of the reason for the DMA API: the driver can give a virtual address X to
  83an interface like dma_map_single(), which sets up any required IOMMU
  84mapping and returns the DMA address Z.  The driver then tells the device to
  85do DMA to Z, and the IOMMU maps it to the buffer at address Y in system
  88So that Linux can use the dynamic DMA mapping, it needs some help from the
  89drivers, namely it has to take into account that DMA addresses should be
  90mapped only for the time they are actually used and unmapped after the DMA
  93The following API will work of course even on platforms where no such
  94hardware exists.
  96Note that the DMA API works with any bus independent of the underlying
  97microprocessor architecture. You should use the DMA API rather than the
  98bus-specific DMA API, i.e., use the dma_map_*() interfaces rather than the
  99pci_map_*() interfaces.
 101First of all, you should make sure
 103#include <linux/dma-mapping.h>
 105is in your driver, which provides the definition of dma_addr_t.  This type
 106can hold any valid DMA address for the platform and should be used
 107everywhere you hold a DMA address returned from the DMA mapping functions.
 109                         What memory is DMA'able?
 111The first piece of information you must know is what kernel memory can
 112be used with the DMA mapping facilities.  There has been an unwritten
 113set of rules regarding this, and this text is an attempt to finally
 114write them down.
 116If you acquired your memory via the page allocator
 117(i.e. __get_free_page*()) or the generic memory allocators
 118(i.e. kmalloc() or kmem_cache_alloc()) then you may DMA to/from
 119that memory using the addresses returned from those routines.
 121This means specifically that you may _not_ use the memory/addresses
 122returned from vmalloc() for DMA.  It is possible to DMA to the
 123_underlying_ memory mapped into a vmalloc() area, but this requires
 124walking page tables to get the physical addresses, and then
 125translating each of those pages back to a kernel address using
 126something like __va().  [ EDIT: Update this when we integrate
 127Gerd Knorr's generic code which does this. ]
 129This rule also means that you may use neither kernel image addresses
 130(items in data/text/bss segments), nor module image addresses, nor
 131stack addresses for DMA.  These could all be mapped somewhere entirely
 132different than the rest of physical memory.  Even if those classes of
 133memory could physically work with DMA, you'd need to ensure the I/O
 134buffers were cacheline-aligned.  Without that, you'd see cacheline
 135sharing problems (data corruption) on CPUs with DMA-incoherent caches.
 136(The CPU could write to one word, DMA would write to a different one
 137in the same cache line, and one of them could be overwritten.)
 139Also, this means that you cannot take the return of a kmap()
 140call and DMA to/from that.  This is similar to vmalloc().
 142What about block I/O and networking buffers?  The block I/O and
 143networking subsystems make sure that the buffers they use are valid
 144for you to DMA from/to.
 146                        DMA addressing limitations
 148Does your device have any DMA addressing limitations?  For example, is
 149your device only capable of driving the low order 24-bits of address?
 150If so, you need to inform the kernel of this fact.
 152By default, the kernel assumes that your device can address the full
 15332-bits.  For a 64-bit capable device, this needs to be increased.
 154And for a device with limitations, as discussed in the previous
 155paragraph, it needs to be decreased.
 157Special note about PCI: PCI-X specification requires PCI-X devices to
 158support 64-bit addressing (DAC) for all transactions.  And at least
 159one platform (SGI SN2) requires 64-bit consistent allocations to
 160operate correctly when the IO bus is in PCI-X mode.
 162For correct operation, you must interrogate the kernel in your device
 163probe routine to see if the DMA controller on the machine can properly
 164support the DMA addressing limitation your device has.  It is good
 165style to do this even if your device holds the default setting,
 166because this shows that you did think about these issues wrt. your
 169The query is performed via a call to dma_set_mask_and_coherent():
 171        int dma_set_mask_and_coherent(struct device *dev, u64 mask);
 173which will query the mask for both streaming and coherent APIs together.
 174If you have some special requirements, then the following two separate
 175queries can be used instead:
 177        The query for streaming mappings is performed via a call to
 178        dma_set_mask():
 180                int dma_set_mask(struct device *dev, u64 mask);
 182        The query for consistent allocations is performed via a call
 183        to dma_set_coherent_mask():
 185                int dma_set_coherent_mask(struct device *dev, u64 mask);
 187Here, dev is a pointer to the device struct of your device, and mask
 188is a bit mask describing which bits of an address your device
 189supports.  It returns zero if your card can perform DMA properly on
 190the machine given the address mask you provided.  In general, the
 191device struct of your device is embedded in the bus-specific device
 192struct of your device.  For example, &pdev->dev is a pointer to the
 193device struct of a PCI device (pdev is a pointer to the PCI device
 194struct of your device).
 196If it returns non-zero, your device cannot perform DMA properly on
 197this platform, and attempting to do so will result in undefined
 198behavior.  You must either use a different mask, or not use DMA.
 200This means that in the failure case, you have three options:
 2021) Use another DMA mask, if possible (see below).
 2032) Use some non-DMA mode for data transfer, if possible.
 2043) Ignore this device and do not initialize it.
 206It is recommended that your driver print a kernel KERN_WARNING message
 207when you end up performing either #2 or #3.  In this manner, if a user
 208of your driver reports that performance is bad or that the device is not
 209even detected, you can ask them for the kernel messages to find out
 210exactly why.
 212The standard 32-bit addressing device would do something like this:
 214        if (dma_set_mask_and_coherent(dev, DMA_BIT_MASK(32))) {
 215                dev_warn(dev, "mydev: No suitable DMA available\n");
 216                goto ignore_this_device;
 217        }
 219Another common scenario is a 64-bit capable device.  The approach here
 220is to try for 64-bit addressing, but back down to a 32-bit mask that
 221should not fail.  The kernel may fail the 64-bit mask not because the
 222platform is not capable of 64-bit addressing.  Rather, it may fail in
 223this case simply because 32-bit addressing is done more efficiently
 224than 64-bit addressing.  For example, Sparc64 PCI SAC addressing is
 225more efficient than DAC addressing.
 227Here is how you would handle a 64-bit capable device which can drive
 228all 64-bits when accessing streaming DMA:
 230        int using_dac;
 232        if (!dma_set_mask(dev, DMA_BIT_MASK(64))) {
 233                using_dac = 1;
 234        } else if (!dma_set_mask(dev, DMA_BIT_MASK(32))) {
 235                using_dac = 0;
 236        } else {
 237                dev_warn(dev, "mydev: No suitable DMA available\n");
 238                goto ignore_this_device;
 239        }
 241If a card is capable of using 64-bit consistent allocations as well,
 242the case would look like this:
 244        int using_dac, consistent_using_dac;
 246        if (!dma_set_mask_and_coherent(dev, DMA_BIT_MASK(64))) {
 247                using_dac = 1;
 248                consistent_using_dac = 1;
 249        } else if (!dma_set_mask_and_coherent(dev, DMA_BIT_MASK(32))) {
 250                using_dac = 0;
 251                consistent_using_dac = 0;
 252        } else {
 253                dev_warn(dev, "mydev: No suitable DMA available\n");
 254                goto ignore_this_device;
 255        }
 257The coherent mask will always be able to set the same or a smaller mask as
 258the streaming mask. However for the rare case that a device driver only
 259uses consistent allocations, one would have to check the return value from
 262Finally, if your device can only drive the low 24-bits of
 263address you might do something like:
 265        if (dma_set_mask(dev, DMA_BIT_MASK(24))) {
 266                dev_warn(dev, "mydev: 24-bit DMA addressing not available\n");
 267                goto ignore_this_device;
 268        }
 270When dma_set_mask() or dma_set_mask_and_coherent() is successful, and
 271returns zero, the kernel saves away this mask you have provided.  The
 272kernel will use this information later when you make DMA mappings.
 274There is a case which we are aware of at this time, which is worth
 275mentioning in this documentation.  If your device supports multiple
 276functions (for example a sound card provides playback and record
 277functions) and the various different functions have _different_
 278DMA addressing limitations, you may wish to probe each mask and
 279only provide the functionality which the machine can handle.  It
 280is important that the last call to dma_set_mask() be for the
 281most specific mask.
 283Here is pseudo-code showing how this might be done:
 285        #define PLAYBACK_ADDRESS_BITS   DMA_BIT_MASK(32)
 286        #define RECORD_ADDRESS_BITS     DMA_BIT_MASK(24)
 288        struct my_sound_card *card;
 289        struct device *dev;
 291        ...
 292        if (!dma_set_mask(dev, PLAYBACK_ADDRESS_BITS)) {
 293                card->playback_enabled = 1;
 294        } else {
 295                card->playback_enabled = 0;
 296                dev_warn(dev, "%s: Playback disabled due to DMA limitations\n",
 297                       card->name);
 298        }
 299        if (!dma_set_mask(dev, RECORD_ADDRESS_BITS)) {
 300                card->record_enabled = 1;
 301        } else {
 302                card->record_enabled = 0;
 303                dev_warn(dev, "%s: Record disabled due to DMA limitations\n",
 304                       card->name);
 305        }
 307A sound card was used as an example here because this genre of PCI
 308devices seems to be littered with ISA chips given a PCI front end,
 309and thus retaining the 16MB DMA addressing limitations of ISA.
 311                        Types of DMA mappings
 313There are two types of DMA mappings:
 315- Consistent DMA mappings which are usually mapped at driver
 316  initialization, unmapped at the end and for which the hardware should
 317  guarantee that the device and the CPU can access the data
 318  in parallel and will see updates made by each other without any
 319  explicit software flushing.
 321  Think of "consistent" as "synchronous" or "coherent".
 323  The current default is to return consistent memory in the low 32
 324  bits of the DMA space.  However, for future compatibility you should
 325  set the consistent mask even if this default is fine for your
 326  driver.
 328  Good examples of what to use consistent mappings for are:
 330        - Network card DMA ring descriptors.
 331        - SCSI adapter mailbox command data structures.
 332        - Device firmware microcode executed out of
 333          main memory.
 335  The invariant these examples all require is that any CPU store
 336  to memory is immediately visible to the device, and vice
 337  versa.  Consistent mappings guarantee this.
 339  IMPORTANT: Consistent DMA memory does not preclude the usage of
 340             proper memory barriers.  The CPU may reorder stores to
 341             consistent memory just as it may normal memory.  Example:
 342             if it is important for the device to see the first word
 343             of a descriptor updated before the second, you must do
 344             something like:
 346                desc->word0 = address;
 347                wmb();
 348                desc->word1 = DESC_VALID;
 350             in order to get correct behavior on all platforms.
 352             Also, on some platforms your driver may need to flush CPU write
 353             buffers in much the same way as it needs to flush write buffers
 354             found in PCI bridges (such as by reading a register's value
 355             after writing it).
 357- Streaming DMA mappings which are usually mapped for one DMA
 358  transfer, unmapped right after it (unless you use dma_sync_* below)
 359  and for which hardware can optimize for sequential accesses.
 361  Think of "streaming" as "asynchronous" or "outside the coherency
 362  domain".
 364  Good examples of what to use streaming mappings for are:
 366        - Networking buffers transmitted/received by a device.
 367        - Filesystem buffers written/read by a SCSI device.
 369  The interfaces for using this type of mapping were designed in
 370  such a way that an implementation can make whatever performance
 371  optimizations the hardware allows.  To this end, when using
 372  such mappings you must be explicit about what you want to happen.
 374Neither type of DMA mapping has alignment restrictions that come from
 375the underlying bus, although some devices may have such restrictions.
 376Also, systems with caches that aren't DMA-coherent will work better
 377when the underlying buffers don't share cache lines with other data.
 380                 Using Consistent DMA mappings.
 382To allocate and map large (PAGE_SIZE or so) consistent DMA regions,
 383you should do:
 385        dma_addr_t dma_handle;
 387        cpu_addr = dma_alloc_coherent(dev, size, &dma_handle, gfp);
 389where device is a struct device *. This may be called in interrupt
 390context with the GFP_ATOMIC flag.
 392Size is the length of the region you want to allocate, in bytes.
 394This routine will allocate RAM for that region, so it acts similarly to
 395__get_free_pages() (but takes size instead of a page order).  If your
 396driver needs regions sized smaller than a page, you may prefer using
 397the dma_pool interface, described below.
 399The consistent DMA mapping interfaces, for non-NULL dev, will by
 400default return a DMA address which is 32-bit addressable.  Even if the
 401device indicates (via DMA mask) that it may address the upper 32-bits,
 402consistent allocation will only return > 32-bit addresses for DMA if
 403the consistent DMA mask has been explicitly changed via
 404dma_set_coherent_mask().  This is true of the dma_pool interface as
 407dma_alloc_coherent() returns two values: the virtual address which you
 408can use to access it from the CPU and dma_handle which you pass to the
 411The CPU virtual address and the DMA address are both
 412guaranteed to be aligned to the smallest PAGE_SIZE order which
 413is greater than or equal to the requested size.  This invariant
 414exists (for example) to guarantee that if you allocate a chunk
 415which is smaller than or equal to 64 kilobytes, the extent of the
 416buffer you receive will not cross a 64K boundary.
 418To unmap and free such a DMA region, you call:
 420        dma_free_coherent(dev, size, cpu_addr, dma_handle);
 422where dev, size are the same as in the above call and cpu_addr and
 423dma_handle are the values dma_alloc_coherent() returned to you.
 424This function may not be called in interrupt context.
 426If your driver needs lots of smaller memory regions, you can write
 427custom code to subdivide pages returned by dma_alloc_coherent(),
 428or you can use the dma_pool API to do that.  A dma_pool is like
 429a kmem_cache, but it uses dma_alloc_coherent(), not __get_free_pages().
 430Also, it understands common hardware constraints for alignment,
 431like queue heads needing to be aligned on N byte boundaries.
 433Create a dma_pool like this:
 435        struct dma_pool *pool;
 437        pool = dma_pool_create(name, dev, size, align, boundary);
 439The "name" is for diagnostics (like a kmem_cache name); dev and size
 440are as above.  The device's hardware alignment requirement for this
 441type of data is "align" (which is expressed in bytes, and must be a
 442power of two).  If your device has no boundary crossing restrictions,
 443pass 0 for boundary; passing 4096 says memory allocated from this pool
 444must not cross 4KByte boundaries (but at that time it may be better to
 445use dma_alloc_coherent() directly instead).
 447Allocate memory from a DMA pool like this:
 449        cpu_addr = dma_pool_alloc(pool, flags, &dma_handle);
 451flags are GFP_KERNEL if blocking is permitted (not in_interrupt nor
 452holding SMP locks), GFP_ATOMIC otherwise.  Like dma_alloc_coherent(),
 453this returns two values, cpu_addr and dma_handle.
 455Free memory that was allocated from a dma_pool like this:
 457        dma_pool_free(pool, cpu_addr, dma_handle);
 459where pool is what you passed to dma_pool_alloc(), and cpu_addr and
 460dma_handle are the values dma_pool_alloc() returned. This function
 461may be called in interrupt context.
 463Destroy a dma_pool by calling:
 465        dma_pool_destroy(pool);
 467Make sure you've called dma_pool_free() for all memory allocated
 468from a pool before you destroy the pool. This function may not
 469be called in interrupt context.
 471                        DMA Direction
 473The interfaces described in subsequent portions of this document
 474take a DMA direction argument, which is an integer and takes on
 475one of the following values:
 482You should provide the exact DMA direction if you know it.
 484DMA_TO_DEVICE means "from main memory to the device"
 485DMA_FROM_DEVICE means "from the device to main memory"
 486It is the direction in which the data moves during the DMA
 489You are _strongly_ encouraged to specify this as precisely
 490as you possibly can.
 492If you absolutely cannot know the direction of the DMA transfer,
 493specify DMA_BIDIRECTIONAL.  It means that the DMA can go in
 494either direction.  The platform guarantees that you may legally
 495specify this, and that it will work, but this may be at the
 496cost of performance for example.
 498The value DMA_NONE is to be used for debugging.  One can
 499hold this in a data structure before you come to know the
 500precise direction, and this will help catch cases where your
 501direction tracking logic has failed to set things up properly.
 503Another advantage of specifying this value precisely (outside of
 504potential platform-specific optimizations of such) is for debugging.
 505Some platforms actually have a write permission boolean which DMA
 506mappings can be marked with, much like page protections in the user
 507program address space.  Such platforms can and do report errors in the
 508kernel logs when the DMA controller hardware detects violation of the
 509permission setting.
 511Only streaming mappings specify a direction, consistent mappings
 512implicitly have a direction attribute setting of
 515The SCSI subsystem tells you the direction to use in the
 516'sc_data_direction' member of the SCSI command your driver is
 517working on.
 519For Networking drivers, it's a rather simple affair.  For transmit
 520packets, map/unmap them with the DMA_TO_DEVICE direction
 521specifier.  For receive packets, just the opposite, map/unmap them
 522with the DMA_FROM_DEVICE direction specifier.
 524                  Using Streaming DMA mappings
 526The streaming DMA mapping routines can be called from interrupt
 527context.  There are two versions of each map/unmap, one which will
 528map/unmap a single memory region, and one which will map/unmap a
 531To map a single region, you do:
 533        struct device *dev = &my_dev->dev;
 534        dma_addr_t dma_handle;
 535        void *addr = buffer->ptr;
 536        size_t size = buffer->len;
 538        dma_handle = dma_map_single(dev, addr, size, direction);
 539        if (dma_mapping_error(dev, dma_handle)) {
 540                /*
 541                 * reduce current DMA mapping usage,
 542                 * delay and try again later or
 543                 * reset driver.
 544                 */
 545                goto map_error_handling;
 546        }
 548and to unmap it:
 550        dma_unmap_single(dev, dma_handle, size, direction);
 552You should call dma_mapping_error() as dma_map_single() could fail and return
 553error. Not all DMA implementations support the dma_mapping_error() interface.
 554However, it is a good practice to call dma_mapping_error() interface, which
 555will invoke the generic mapping error check interface. Doing so will ensure
 556that the mapping code will work correctly on all DMA implementations without
 557any dependency on the specifics of the underlying implementation. Using the
 558returned address without checking for errors could result in failures ranging
 559from panics to silent data corruption. A couple of examples of incorrect ways
 560to check for errors that make assumptions about the underlying DMA
 561implementation are as follows and these are applicable to dma_map_page() as
 564Incorrect example 1:
 565        dma_addr_t dma_handle;
 567        dma_handle = dma_map_single(dev, addr, size, direction);
 568        if ((dma_handle & 0xffff != 0) || (dma_handle >= 0x1000000)) {
 569                goto map_error;
 570        }
 572Incorrect example 2:
 573        dma_addr_t dma_handle;
 575        dma_handle = dma_map_single(dev, addr, size, direction);
 576        if (dma_handle == DMA_ERROR_CODE) {
 577                goto map_error;
 578        }
 580You should call dma_unmap_single() when the DMA activity is finished, e.g.,
 581from the interrupt which told you that the DMA transfer is done.
 583Using CPU pointers like this for single mappings has a disadvantage:
 584you cannot reference HIGHMEM memory in this way.  Thus, there is a
 585map/unmap interface pair akin to dma_{map,unmap}_single().  These
 586interfaces deal with page/offset pairs instead of CPU pointers.
 589        struct device *dev = &my_dev->dev;
 590        dma_addr_t dma_handle;
 591        struct page *page = buffer->page;
 592        unsigned long offset = buffer->offset;
 593        size_t size = buffer->len;
 595        dma_handle = dma_map_page(dev, page, offset, size, direction);
 596        if (dma_mapping_error(dev, dma_handle)) {
 597                /*
 598                 * reduce current DMA mapping usage,
 599                 * delay and try again later or
 600                 * reset driver.
 601                 */
 602                goto map_error_handling;
 603        }
 605        ...
 607        dma_unmap_page(dev, dma_handle, size, direction);
 609Here, "offset" means byte offset within the given page.
 611You should call dma_mapping_error() as dma_map_page() could fail and return
 612error as outlined under the dma_map_single() discussion.
 614You should call dma_unmap_page() when the DMA activity is finished, e.g.,
 615from the interrupt which told you that the DMA transfer is done.
 617With scatterlists, you map a region gathered from several regions by:
 619        int i, count = dma_map_sg(dev, sglist, nents, direction);
 620        struct scatterlist *sg;
 622        for_each_sg(sglist, sg, count, i) {
 623                hw_address[i] = sg_dma_address(sg);
 624                hw_len[i] = sg_dma_len(sg);
 625        }
 627where nents is the number of entries in the sglist.
 629The implementation is free to merge several consecutive sglist entries
 630into one (e.g. if DMA mapping is done with PAGE_SIZE granularity, any
 631consecutive sglist entries can be merged into one provided the first one
 632ends and the second one starts on a page boundary - in fact this is a huge
 633advantage for cards which either cannot do scatter-gather or have very
 634limited number of scatter-gather entries) and returns the actual number
 635of sg entries it mapped them to. On failure 0 is returned.
 637Then you should loop count times (note: this can be less than nents times)
 638and use sg_dma_address() and sg_dma_len() macros where you previously
 639accessed sg->address and sg->length as shown above.
 641To unmap a scatterlist, just call:
 643        dma_unmap_sg(dev, sglist, nents, direction);
 645Again, make sure DMA activity has already finished.
 647PLEASE NOTE:  The 'nents' argument to the dma_unmap_sg call must be
 648              the _same_ one you passed into the dma_map_sg call,
 649              it should _NOT_ be the 'count' value _returned_ from the
 650              dma_map_sg call.
 652Every dma_map_{single,sg}() call should have its dma_unmap_{single,sg}()
 653counterpart, because the DMA address space is a shared resource and
 654you could render the machine unusable by consuming all DMA addresses.
 656If you need to use the same streaming DMA region multiple times and touch
 657the data in between the DMA transfers, the buffer needs to be synced
 658properly in order for the CPU and device to see the most up-to-date and
 659correct copy of the DMA buffer.
 661So, firstly, just map it with dma_map_{single,sg}(), and after each DMA
 662transfer call either:
 664        dma_sync_single_for_cpu(dev, dma_handle, size, direction);
 668        dma_sync_sg_for_cpu(dev, sglist, nents, direction);
 670as appropriate.
 672Then, if you wish to let the device get at the DMA area again,
 673finish accessing the data with the CPU, and then before actually
 674giving the buffer to the hardware call either:
 676        dma_sync_single_for_device(dev, dma_handle, size, direction);
 680        dma_sync_sg_for_device(dev, sglist, nents, direction);
 682as appropriate.
 684PLEASE NOTE:  The 'nents' argument to dma_sync_sg_for_cpu() and
 685              dma_sync_sg_for_device() must be the same passed to
 686              dma_map_sg(). It is _NOT_ the count returned by
 687              dma_map_sg().
 689After the last DMA transfer call one of the DMA unmap routines
 690dma_unmap_{single,sg}(). If you don't touch the data from the first
 691dma_map_*() call till dma_unmap_*(), then you don't have to call the
 692dma_sync_*() routines at all.
 694Here is pseudo code which shows a situation in which you would need
 695to use the dma_sync_*() interfaces.
 697        my_card_setup_receive_buffer(struct my_card *cp, char *buffer, int len)
 698        {
 699                dma_addr_t mapping;
 701                mapping = dma_map_single(cp->dev, buffer, len, DMA_FROM_DEVICE);
 702                if (dma_mapping_error(cp->dev, mapping)) {
 703                        /*
 704                         * reduce current DMA mapping usage,
 705                         * delay and try again later or
 706                         * reset driver.
 707                         */
 708                        goto map_error_handling;
 709                }
 711                cp->rx_buf = buffer;
 712                cp->rx_len = len;
 713                cp->rx_dma = mapping;
 715                give_rx_buf_to_card(cp);
 716        }
 718        ...
 720        my_card_interrupt_handler(int irq, void *devid, struct pt_regs *regs)
 721        {
 722                struct my_card *cp = devid;
 724                ...
 725                if (read_card_status(cp) == RX_BUF_TRANSFERRED) {
 726                        struct my_card_header *hp;
 728                        /* Examine the header to see if we wish
 729                         * to accept the data.  But synchronize
 730                         * the DMA transfer with the CPU first
 731                         * so that we see updated contents.
 732                         */
 733                        dma_sync_single_for_cpu(&cp->dev, cp->rx_dma,
 734                                                cp->rx_len,
 735                                                DMA_FROM_DEVICE);
 737                        /* Now it is safe to examine the buffer. */
 738                        hp = (struct my_card_header *) cp->rx_buf;
 739                        if (header_is_ok(hp)) {
 740                                dma_unmap_single(&cp->dev, cp->rx_dma, cp->rx_len,
 741                                                 DMA_FROM_DEVICE);
 742                                pass_to_upper_layers(cp->rx_buf);
 743                                make_and_setup_new_rx_buf(cp);
 744                        } else {
 745                                /* CPU should not write to
 746                                 * DMA_FROM_DEVICE-mapped area,
 747                                 * so dma_sync_single_for_device() is
 748                                 * not needed here. It would be required
 749                                 * for DMA_BIDIRECTIONAL mapping if
 750                                 * the memory was modified.
 751                                 */
 752                                give_rx_buf_to_card(cp);
 753                        }
 754                }
 755        }
 757Drivers converted fully to this interface should not use virt_to_bus() any
 758longer, nor should they use bus_to_virt(). Some drivers have to be changed a
 759little bit, because there is no longer an equivalent to bus_to_virt() in the
 760dynamic DMA mapping scheme - you have to always store the DMA addresses
 761returned by the dma_alloc_coherent(), dma_pool_alloc(), and dma_map_single()
 762calls (dma_map_sg() stores them in the scatterlist itself if the platform
 763supports dynamic DMA mapping in hardware) in your driver structures and/or
 764in the card registers.
 766All drivers should be using these interfaces with no exceptions.  It
 767is planned to completely remove virt_to_bus() and bus_to_virt() as
 768they are entirely deprecated.  Some ports already do not provide these
 769as it is impossible to correctly support them.
 771                        Handling Errors
 773DMA address space is limited on some architectures and an allocation
 774failure can be determined by:
 776- checking if dma_alloc_coherent() returns NULL or dma_map_sg returns 0
 778- checking the dma_addr_t returned from dma_map_single() and dma_map_page()
 779  by using dma_mapping_error():
 781        dma_addr_t dma_handle;
 783        dma_handle = dma_map_single(dev, addr, size, direction);
 784        if (dma_mapping_error(dev, dma_handle)) {
 785                /*
 786                 * reduce current DMA mapping usage,
 787                 * delay and try again later or
 788                 * reset driver.
 789                 */
 790                goto map_error_handling;
 791        }
 793- unmap pages that are already mapped, when mapping error occurs in the middle
 794  of a multiple page mapping attempt. These example are applicable to
 795  dma_map_page() as well.
 797Example 1:
 798        dma_addr_t dma_handle1;
 799        dma_addr_t dma_handle2;
 801        dma_handle1 = dma_map_single(dev, addr, size, direction);
 802        if (dma_mapping_error(dev, dma_handle1)) {
 803                /*
 804                 * reduce current DMA mapping usage,
 805                 * delay and try again later or
 806                 * reset driver.
 807                 */
 808                goto map_error_handling1;
 809        }
 810        dma_handle2 = dma_map_single(dev, addr, size, direction);
 811        if (dma_mapping_error(dev, dma_handle2)) {
 812                /*
 813                 * reduce current DMA mapping usage,
 814                 * delay and try again later or
 815                 * reset driver.
 816                 */
 817                goto map_error_handling2;
 818        }
 820        ...
 822        map_error_handling2:
 823                dma_unmap_single(dma_handle1);
 824        map_error_handling1:
 826Example 2: (if buffers are allocated in a loop, unmap all mapped buffers when
 827            mapping error is detected in the middle)
 829        dma_addr_t dma_addr;
 830        dma_addr_t array[DMA_BUFFERS];
 831        int save_index = 0;
 833        for (i = 0; i < DMA_BUFFERS; i++) {
 835                ...
 837                dma_addr = dma_map_single(dev, addr, size, direction);
 838                if (dma_mapping_error(dev, dma_addr)) {
 839                        /*
 840                         * reduce current DMA mapping usage,
 841                         * delay and try again later or
 842                         * reset driver.
 843                         */
 844                        goto map_error_handling;
 845                }
 846                array[i].dma_addr = dma_addr;
 847                save_index++;
 848        }
 850        ...
 852        map_error_handling:
 854        for (i = 0; i < save_index; i++) {
 856                ...
 858                dma_unmap_single(array[i].dma_addr);
 859        }
 861Networking drivers must call dev_kfree_skb() to free the socket buffer
 862and return NETDEV_TX_OK if the DMA mapping fails on the transmit hook
 863(ndo_start_xmit). This means that the socket buffer is just dropped in
 864the failure case.
 866SCSI drivers must return SCSI_MLQUEUE_HOST_BUSY if the DMA mapping
 867fails in the queuecommand hook. This means that the SCSI subsystem
 868passes the command to the driver again later.
 870                Optimizing Unmap State Space Consumption
 872On many platforms, dma_unmap_{single,page}() is simply a nop.
 873Therefore, keeping track of the mapping address and length is a waste
 874of space.  Instead of filling your drivers up with ifdefs and the like
 875to "work around" this (which would defeat the whole purpose of a
 876portable API) the following facilities are provided.
 878Actually, instead of describing the macros one by one, we'll
 879transform some example code.
 8811) Use DEFINE_DMA_UNMAP_{ADDR,LEN} in state saving structures.
 882   Example, before:
 884        struct ring_state {
 885                struct sk_buff *skb;
 886                dma_addr_t mapping;
 887                __u32 len;
 888        };
 890   after:
 892        struct ring_state {
 893                struct sk_buff *skb;
 894                DEFINE_DMA_UNMAP_ADDR(mapping);
 895                DEFINE_DMA_UNMAP_LEN(len);
 896        };
 8982) Use dma_unmap_{addr,len}_set() to set these values.
 899   Example, before:
 901        ringp->mapping = FOO;
 902        ringp->len = BAR;
 904   after:
 906        dma_unmap_addr_set(ringp, mapping, FOO);
 907        dma_unmap_len_set(ringp, len, BAR);
 9093) Use dma_unmap_{addr,len}() to access these values.
 910   Example, before:
 912        dma_unmap_single(dev, ringp->mapping, ringp->len,
 913                         DMA_FROM_DEVICE);
 915   after:
 917        dma_unmap_single(dev,
 918                         dma_unmap_addr(ringp, mapping),
 919                         dma_unmap_len(ringp, len),
 920                         DMA_FROM_DEVICE);
 922It really should be self-explanatory.  We treat the ADDR and LEN
 923separately, because it is possible for an implementation to only
 924need the address in order to perform the unmap operation.
 926                        Platform Issues
 928If you are just writing drivers for Linux and do not maintain
 929an architecture port for the kernel, you can safely skip down
 930to "Closing".
 9321) Struct scatterlist requirements.
 934   You need to enable CONFIG_NEED_SG_DMA_LENGTH if the architecture
 935   supports IOMMUs (including software IOMMU).
 939   Architectures must ensure that kmalloc'ed buffer is
 940   DMA-safe. Drivers and subsystems depend on it. If an architecture
 941   isn't fully DMA-coherent (i.e. hardware doesn't ensure that data in
 942   the CPU cache is identical to data in main memory),
 943   ARCH_DMA_MINALIGN must be set so that the memory allocator
 944   makes sure that kmalloc'ed buffer doesn't share a cache line with
 945   the others. See arch/arm/include/asm/cache.h as an example.
 947   Note that ARCH_DMA_MINALIGN is about DMA memory alignment
 948   constraints. You don't need to worry about the architecture data
 949   alignment constraints (e.g. the alignment constraints about 64-bit
 950   objects).
 952                           Closing
 954This document, and the API itself, would not be in its current
 955form without the feedback and suggestions from numerous individuals.
 956We would like to specifically mention, in no particular order, the
 957following people:
 959        Russell King <>
 960        Leo Dagum <>
 961        Ralf Baechle <>
 962        Grant Grundler <>
 963        Jay Estabrook <>
 964        Thomas Sailer <>
 965        Andrea Arcangeli <>
 966        Jens Axboe <>
 967        David Mosberger-Tang <>